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Infectious diseases are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal population
in low and middle-income countries.
Implementation of effective interventions, such as the antibiotic treatment for neonatal
sepsis, has showed to reduce mortality and subsequent complications. For this
condition, early recognition of risk factors and signs is an important determinant for an
appropriate clinical management.
Key messages
 Early treatment with antibiotics has been shown to reduce unfavorable outcomes
in suspected early neonatal sepsis, such as:
- neonatal mortality
- treatment failure
- bacteriological resistence
 Little and out of date evidence is available about effectivenes of different antibiotic
regimens in the treatment of early neonatal sepsis. This makes difficult to establish
whether monotherapy or combination therapy is the most indicated.
 There were no differences in mortality, treatment failure or bacteriological resistance
between monotherapy and antibiotic combination therapy.


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