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Diabetes is a disturbance of multiple metabolic pathways, but it is the effects on
carbohydrate metabolism that are most apparent. There is widespread variation in
the classification of gestational diabetes. World Health Organization suggests that
all abnormal glucose metabolisms arising in pregnancy should be defined as gestational
diabetes. Long-term complications of diabetes can involve blood vessels,
eyes, kidneys or the neurological system.
Key messages
􀃎 There is still no consensus on important issues such as the incidence of GDM,
how to diagnose it, what, if any, therapy to employ, and the effect of GDM on
maternal and fetal health.
􀃎 There is insufficient evidence to recommend, or advise against, diabetic
pregnant women enrolling in exercise programs.
􀃎 Future larger well-conducted trials are needed to detect potential effects of
gestational diabetes on maternal and child health.


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